1857 revolt is one of the most important topic for upsc. The civil servants, the governors, all ranks and, appointments of any consequence were open to only the white man. The annexation was an unacceptable change for a sizeable, portion of the population. Mutinies started right from 1757 but these were over. To perform a study on an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to investigate the removal (BOD5,SS,Ammonia). Ahmad Shah Abdali later on portrayed as a purely Muslim hero could. His arrogant and racist behaviour immediately, alienated all those people who came into contact with him69. Fortescue thus said about, this incident that; 'And then followed one of those incidents which after, endless explanation remain always mysterious. From. (3) The Economic Factor. England was many months journey by, sea or overland from India but the 'sea communications' which the British used, were guaranteed and reliable by virtue of British naval mastery established, after 1588 and consolidated as a result of a series of naval victories in the, 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. For more than an year through sheer, carelessness and negligence the allowances were not paid to pensioners, which was part of the EEIC settlement terms. Causes of Revolt of 1857 The revolt of 1857 was initiated due to various factors which are stated below: Religious & Social Causes – racism or racial discrimination was believed to be a major reason for the revolt of 1857 wherein Indians were exploited and … That is why it is also called sepoy Mutiny. Mr. Cherry reportedly, raised his voice during the course of discussion upon which Wazir Ali lost his, temper and struck Mr. Cherry with his sword. Retired from the Army in March 1994, presently he is heading a, 32. Slowly and steadily it increased their, hatred of their officers and EEIC not because of any personal reason but simply, because they belonged to an alien race who they perceived as bent upon, damaging their religious sensitivities. The Revolt of 1857 convinced the British the futility of interfering in the traditional socio-religious customs of India. Muhammad Ali Shah's successor Amjad Ali, Shah (1842-47) was also forced to grant the EEIC a loan of Rs.3,200,000 on his, accession in 184262. possessions by the power of the British arms'44. 4. The sepoys, a generic term used for native Indian soldiers of the .. Analyze the long term and short term causes of the . Pages-3,11, and 19-Cambridge History-Volume VI-Op Cit. 64. From the strict legal point it can be, criticized as unjust. In order to remove this anomaly Lord Canning in 1856 changed the rules, of service in 1856 which made it compulsory for all regiments of Bengal Army, to serve overseas or in any part of the world. Subsequently when they assessed that the Mughal, Empire had became weak, they usurped power and became for all purposes, independent rulers. Keeping in view the, origins of the Oudh Nawab we see that his ancestors were the governors of the, Mughal Emperor in Oudh. We see exactly the same phenomena in, Germany after 1918 once the German populace mistakenly believed that they, had never been militarily defeated but had been stabbed in the back. (3) Dalhousie also, realized that Indians felt excluded from the government and it was necessary, to include Indians in higher policy formulation. . Metcalf says Stokes undermines the assumption that 1857 was a response to general causes emanating from entire classes of people. between Madina and Mecca Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) paused and revealed to made them the de jure master also in 1765 or in 1773 technically speaking37. © Be my guest in Rio. 'Nadir was, not content to remain a mere brigand' in words of Percy Sykes.Leaders of third, world countries are much bigger brigands in terms of white collar fraud and, the finest modern historians of Mughal or post Mughal India are mostly from India, ;both Muslim as well as non Muslim,while history as a study has been given the, treatment reserved for a bastard child!This has been largely because history was, subjected to much distortion, thanks to influence of military usurpers who, destroyed not only democracy but also the intellectual depth as well as. 'Religion' was just one of their tools, a political, expedient, a wartime slogan, a matter of policy. The 'Ghauri' Turks who were 'Muslims' by, religion were the first Muslim settlers in India east of Indus valley region. The problem with the British was, that they thought that they were very special whereas India had been, conquered even by 'Horse Thieves'33 and central Asian adventurers who could, not fight with the Uzbeks! In 1856 once the EEIC annexed Oudh its outstanding, loans which it had taken from Oudh stood at Rs.35,000,000 or 3.5 million, Pounds62A. In this aspect, the East India Company was a sophisticated. The causes of the revolt emerged from all aspects socio . Confiscation of these estates also alienated a large number of landowners in, Oudh. All things said and, We are discussing Oudh in considerably greater detail because it was in this, -Daula as Nawab of Oudh in September 1797. What were the economic causes for the revolt of 1857? Firstly, There was yet another military cause which played a far more crucial role than, News of British reverses in the Crimean War of 1856 also encouraged Bengal, But the introduction of the Greased Cartridges in 1857 was the final and, Another reason was the successive decline in the quality of officers of the, In short all the causes though they did contribute towards the mutiny were, Since the 'Greased Cartridges' were the most immediate and specific cause of, The bullet's cap had to be removed before being loaded. number in the period (1679-1707) stood at 31.6 %32 . The Indian Mutiny, a widespread revolt against the .. Guilty.Crown.Complete.English.Dubbed ->>> DOWNLOAD . of Lord Dalhousie J.G.A Baird-Blackwood-London-1910. This enraged a considerable part of the populace. They can be, compared with Normans or Saxons who went to Britain and gradually got, assimilated in the country which they had initially conquered. He also wanted to, reduce the influence of the EEIC's Resident at Lucknow who were performing, the same role as Ambassadors of some so-called super powers perform in, today's third world countries. Aurangzeb's most famous general Jai Singh was a Hindu, Rajput. Revolt of 1857 is known as the biggest revolt by Indians against the foreigners, forcing them to leave our motherland India.. The EEIC could have annexed, Oudh in 1765 but they did not do so in 1765 because they assessed that it was, practically not possible for them to manage this vast territory. This date was selected because it signified the day according to Shia Tradition when at Ghadir UL Khumm a depression located between Madina and Mecca Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H) paused and revealed to his assembled companions. Outram favoured a regency council, led by the EEIC who would reform Oudh's state of affairs. The self-confidence of the British and their plans for the rapid westernization of India through social reforms were shattered. The direct effects of the Revolt of 1857 may be summed as follows: The Revolt of 1857 exposed the danger involved in allowing a commercial organisation to rule over a country. The Bengal Sepoys who belonged to Oudh were a privileged class in, Oudh since they were EEIC employees. esteem attached to the Commanding Officer in Sepoy eyes. India witnessed considerable bloodshed, anarchy and destruction. The second fear pertained to the new, recruitment policy of the EEIC. Download As PDF +1. In order to train the sepoys in the use of, this new weapon Musketry Depots at Ambala, Sialkot and Dum Dum (near, Calcutta) were established. however much Oudh is reduced in sovereignty or territory or in financial terms. But all said and done these Britishers were servants of, a company which had its headquarters in London, where all policies pertaining, to general operations, legislation, recruitment etc. The already simmering anger against British burst out into a violent storm. Ranjit Singh's (the Sikh hero) most trusted advisors were the Muslim Fakir, brothers of Lahore35. This is a relatively simple exercise. The English East India Company's, presence was based on trade between India and Britain and pure business or, economic activity confined to India only was not their sole objective. We will, examine the salient aspects which brought this change of perception in the, Bengal Sepoy :- (1) The prime motivation of the Bengal Army soldiers in joining. Many causes led to the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. Dalhousie in a demi official letter addressed to Outram in 1856 had, thus written, 'It is my intention that not a single fortified place should be left in, Oudh with the exception of those that belong to Government. Therefore in the Enfield Rifle ammunition tallow made of, beef or swine fat was introduced. Dalhousie was a civilian, and a young man. During, the discussions while drafting the India Act of 1853 in the British Parliament a. proposal was made to have Indian members in the viceroy's legislative council. Private Letters 18th September 1848 and dated 12th May 1855-Private Letters Lord Dalhousie, one of the Governor Generals in India wanted for, example to include Indians in the higher government of India but his wish was, overruled by the court of Directors of the English East India Company. left. 1798 to 1856 their guiding principle of conduct was to somehow stay in power. 5 the East India Company were impoverishing and ruining the peasantry. The policy of annexation on part of the English East India, Company was nothing but a logical outcome of superior military strength. The Great Revolt of 1857' - starbuck Download Now An . Pages-513 & 518- The History of Christianity in India-Sir William Kaye. Wazir Ali fled from the scene, raised an army of 6,000 but was defeated. The most intriguing of these incidents, unnoticed by, large majority of historians was the refusal of the 4th Bengal Cavalry on 2nd, November 1840 during the First Afghan War, to charge a party of Afghan, horsemen led by Dost Mohammad Khan at Perwan, north of Kabul.The British, historian John Fortescue had no answer for the reason why the 2nd Bengal, Light Cavalry fell back and fled from the battle field. They defeated the then Pathan Muslim King of Delhi at, Panipat and established the Mughal dynasty. Army sepoys belief that the Britisher was not invincible. PDF | causes of Sepoy Rebellion of 1857-59 Reinterpreted | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate several causes responsible for the Revolt of 1857.. Guilty.Crown.Complete.English.Dubbed ->>> DOWNLOAD . 6. 'Settlers' or 'Plunderers'. This proposal was defeated due to opposition on part of Sir Charles Wood who, stated that 'No two Indians could be found to represent adequately the, diversity of Hindu and Muslim society'.35a There was an element of truth in, Charles Wood's argument but it was just a minute fraction of the truth against. In the year 1832 a similar law was passed giving protection to, Christian converts in inheriting property, but this law was confined only to the, Bengal presidency area75, notably in the case of inheriting property. The cumulative effect . Its reliability, and effectiveness was confirmed during the Crimean War. In justice to Ahmad Shah Abdali, it must be stated that Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761 did want to become a settler, and establish his dynasty in India but he failed to do so because his soldiers, had rebelled and demanded a return back to Afghanistan. The Sepoy Revolt Its Causes And Its Consequences . .. No-734-Lahore-1950. This War is regarded as the most remarkable one which took place after the British came to India and began to establish their rule. Lord Dalhousie censured him and revoked his orders. EEIC. Political Causes. British rule also meant misery to the artisans and handicrafts people. Pages-684 & 685- A Dictionary of Modern Indian History-Parshotam Mehra-. Dalhousie through his policies had added considerable territories to the British Empire in India. the army was economic. 1801-580: 342-Home Miscellaneous Series-Common Wealth Relations OfficeLondon, Other details as cited in End Note 48.The area of Terai was of little economic benefit and was transferred to Oudh around 1820s in lieu of part of the forced loans taken from Oudh!Later the area was returned to Nepal for services against the Sepoy Rebels during the final capture of Lucknow, Henry Beveridge-Other details as cited in End Note 48.The area of Terai was of Before 1757 all contenders in, Indian politics were either Hindus or Muslims. It is considered as the country’s First War of Independence which was against the rule of the British.. The 'Plunderers', were the ones who came like 'Ghaznavis', 'Mongols', 'Nadir Shah', 'Ahmad Shah, Abdali' etc. The difference of opinion however was resolved by the EEIC court of Directors, and the British government's decision to annex Oudh67. They were patriots, had firm, roots in the soil and could be potentially a tough source of opposition to the, EEIC, had the Nawab or his family had anyone who can be called a leader of, men. Sir Charles Napier, the, it and we can see this from following actions of Dalhousie :- (1) He gave, detailed instructions to Outram, the Chief Commissioner of Oudh regarding, disarming of the population of Oudh and dismantling of fortification. AFTER EFFECTS OF THE REVOLT: For, those who do not know Indian history it is important to specify that the first, Muslim invaders of India i.e., the 'Arabs' were settlers and not plunderers. 50. The Company was now solely incharge, of the external defence of Oudh. disband his army and to replace it by a pure EEIC force51. convinced by virtue of the excellent fighting performance in the two Sikh wars. agreement was to be reduced to less than one tenth of its previous size. Great Revolt of 1857 (Causes, .. It, became the 2nd Bengal Light Cavalry only in 179685. The immediate cause of military . 57. There was a problem previewing Indian History Freedom Struggle (1857-1947) pro.pdf. On the other hand, there are also scholars who view the Revolt of 1857 as Sepoy Mutiny. Fortescue-Macmillan and Company limited London-1927. The standpoint from which it is mostly, condemned is morality or moral grounds but there is no morality in empire, building or politics. Now suddenly after 1757 a third religion 'Christianity', appears on the Indian scenario. By the 1850s, much of India was ruled by the East India Company, a private company consisting of British merchants which had first established its presence in the 1600s. With this belief, the Indians rose in revolt against the British. The episode of greased cartridges, however, was a big enough issue to start the rebellion on its own. In 1857 however the slogan 'Hinduism' or 'Islam' against, Christianity was used in order to rationalize a hatred which had resulted from, discriminatory policies, based on racism which had little connection with, religion. » The causes for the revolt of 1857 was can be categorised under. not the total rallying points of the great revolt. (2) The Bengal Army was composed of, 80% Hindu Brahman and Rajputs. Sleeman actually warned Dalhousie that annexation of Oudh, would lead to a mutiny in the Bengal Army66. These honourable gentlemen graced the scene for a short duration and then. This, group was a better lot as compared to the Nawab. as the Caliph of Islam. Revolt of 1857 1. Page-58-The Causes of the Indian Revolt-Syed Ahmad Khan Bahadur-First Published-1873-Reprinted by The Book House-8. Had the British assimilated like the. By the first half of the 19th century, the East India Company had brought major portions of India under its control.One hundred years after the Battle of Plassey, anger against the unjust and oppressive British Government took the form of a revolt chain of events and their cascading effects, .. . They, made Delhi their capital and gradually got assimilated in India. The struggle in India prior to 1757 and, even after 1757 was between individuals who were 'Muslims' or 'Hindus' by, pure chance and who manipulated their followers or subjects in a certain, direction guided and propelled not by any religious convictions but by personal, whims and subjective designs. cause of Swadharma and Swaraj .. what were the effects of revolt of 1857? As a matter of fact the EEIC did start, reducing their army after 184987. He, foresaw that a rebellion was possible. It became clearer in 1797, made the EEIC designs easier by gross mismanagement and debauchery. The EEIC to a considerable extent, rightly accused the Oudh Nawabs and subsequently its kings of, misgovernment and mal-administration. It is possible that their, peculiar Afghan origin may have played a part in their reluctance to charge the. Download CBSE Class 8 Social Science Revolt Of 1857 Notes in pdf, Social Science chapter notes, class notes mind maps formulas Revision Notes CBSE Class 8 Social Science Revolt of 1857 Notes. Saadat Ali Khan had attempted, coup failed he sought asylum in EEIC territory. Thus, though 1857 which in itself, was a positive affair resulted in retarding growth of progressive ideas in Indi, which men like Dalhousie wanted to advance. In 1814 they again, interfered with succession to Nawabship on Saadat Ali Khan's death and, placed the candidate of their choice Ghaziuddin Haider on the throne52. The annexation of Indian states by the Company cut off their major source of patronage AM The Great Revolt of 1857 After-effects of this . But it was simply not cost effective being a barren, desolate and unproductive, the EEIC had conquered the whole of India and the Bengal Sepoy feared that, now the EEIC may reduce their army. But this, was not all, Dalhousie went further and he made another profound observation, which convincingly proves that Dalhousie had a remarkable insight about the, only for the king of Oudh but for almost all Indo-Pak rulers of that time and to a, certain extent even those of today in many third world countries. MEDIUM. reckon within India after 1757 brought a totally new phenomena to India i.e., 'slavery' and 'subjugation'. (4) The Muslim troops employed in the First Afghan war were, demoralised because they were deployed after a long time against the, Muslims. Meanwhile from early 1850s trials had been carried out at Enfield in England, on a new rifle with three grooves. 1857 revolt is one of the most important topic for upsc. Retrying.. It is an irony of history that the east Asian, tribes and races forced the west Asian nomads of Mongol and Turk origin to, seek their barbaric design for plunder westwards and these central Asia, people repeatedly invaded India. The Nawab's sole interest was to stay in power. The next Resident James, Outram who succeeded in 1854 also prepared another report largely based on, Sleeman's report. This gap in terms, of time and space enabled the sepoys to occupy and concentrate at two, the rebellion of 1857 we will examine it in a little more detail. But the Bengal Army's alienation was a, slow process. This reduced the. Instead, Stokes argues that 1) those Indians who suffered the greatest relative deprivation rebelled and that 2) the decisive factor in precipitating a revolt was the presence of prosperous magnates who supported British rule. Historians like Sir John Seeley called the revolt a mere sepoy mutiny with no popular support and native leadership. It would be unfair to, brand all EEIC officials as Christian fanatics. Causes of 1857 Revolt .. punjab and the indian revolt of 1857 Download punjab and the indian revolt of 1857 or read online books in PDF, . of . This severely restricted the mobility of the Bengal, Army. Causes of Revolt of 1857 by ramita254 in Types > Creative Writing, . Pages- 8 ,9 ,10 & 11- The Mutiny Outbreak in Meerut in 1857 - J.A.B Palmer-, Macmillan and Company Limited-Saint Martins Press-New York-1958. i am number four book online free download let it snow chords pdf download elementary linear .. This incident sparked off a general mutiny among the sepoys of Meerut. But all these people had either, plundered them and left or if they had stayed, they always allowed the native, Indians to be a part of the dominant classes. objectives and the industrial revolution. It is, significant to note that all interest which the EEIC paid back to Oudh was used, for pensions and allowances of the Oudh Royal Family. 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