Voir plus d'idées sur le thème Témoins de jéhovah, Camp de concentration, Pays bas. The first camp commandant was SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Karl Walter Chmielewski, who previously served in Sachsenhausen. This channel was generated automatically by YouTube's video discovery system. When will we see each other again? Moreover, hardly any facilities were provided in the beginning. His diary is published as Dagboek geschreven in Vught (Amsterdam, 1977). Hygienic conditions were poor, most notably in the Judendurchgangslager, suggesting that the physical condition of these prisoners was not a matter of concern for the camp leadership. After their registration there, almost all the prisoners of this so-called Philips-Transport were transferred to the Gross-Rosen Aussenkommando Langenbielau [aka Reichenbach], where they had to work in a Deutsche Telefunken factory. Vught, small German Nazi concentration camp in the town of Vught, 2 miles (3 km) south of the city of Hertogenbosch, North Brabant, Neth. The Judendurchgangslager opened on January 16, 1943. In this way they clearly facilitated the sending of food parcels, which were of course of great help and comfort for the prisoners. A small part of this former SS concentration camp houses the Herzogenbusch Concentration Camp Museum. 8 (’s-Gravenhage, 1978). The camp premises were liberated on October 26, 1944. Because of the trial’s importance, its complete text was published in 1952. The only penal record of a leading personality is Rauter’s trial. Because of the advance of the Allied forces through France and Belgium, the prisoners of the Schutzhaftlager, the Polizeiliches Durchgangslager, the SD- Lager, and the Frauenkonzentrationslager were transported, on September 5 and 6, 1944, to camps in Germany. Par aprè… For Jews in particular, but also for po liti cal prisoners, the regime intended to send them to other destinations. Herzogenbusch Concentration Camp, Vught, The Netherlands. A small group of students, however, were transported to Germany for forced labor. On February 16, 1944, Himmler endorsed Pohl’s request and transferred Herzogenbusch from Pohl’s responsibility to Rauter’s. Among them was the Herzogenbusch main camp (also known as Vught). Between 1933 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its allies established more than 44,000 camps and other incarceration sites (including ghettos).  Under his leadership, at least 329 men were executed. , Due to hunger, sickness, and abuse, at least 749 men, women and children died there. The remaining prisoners, all hostages, were set free or transferred to the Amersfoort camp. M'n liefste bezit. He did not want it to be a police transit or extended police camp (Polizeiliches Durchgangslager or Erweitertes Polizeilager) like Amersfoort, or a Judendurchgangslager like Westerbork. Their former guards, all members of the Wachbatallion Nordwest, accompanied the Amersfoort prisoners. Moreover, the regime in Herzogenbusch obviously did not show itself as cruel as was the case elsewhere. It records events from 11 February 1943 until 8 February 1944. Apart from these general publications, the last decade has witnessed books published with attention to special features of the camp: Example, on the Jewish child prisoners, Janneke de Moei, Joodse kinderen in het kamp Vught (Vught, 1999); on the Bunkerdrama, Hans Olink, Vrouwen van Vught: Een nacht in een concentratiekamp (Amsterdam, 1995); and on the Philips- Kommando, P.W. In the summer of 1942, only a few weeks after the first deportation train had left the Jewish transit camp (Judendurchgangslager) at Westerbork for Auschwitz on June 15, Höherer-SS und Polizeiführer (HSSPF) Hanns Albin Rauter, in consultation with Reichskommissar Arthur Seyss-Inquart, decided to start construction of a new camp called Herzogenbusch (’s-Hertogenbosch). Dans le centre de mémoire on peut visiter plusieurs expositions, l’espace de recueillement et le mur de réaction. A Jewish student, David Koker (b. Koker was deported to Auschwitz on June 2, 1944. It came into being because of the attempts by the resistance on the lives of high-placed Dutch Nazis. The dismissal of two camp commandants, a responsibility usually reserved for the WVHA, led to a conflict between Pohl and Rauter. Herzogenbusch became known as one of the few concentration camps located outside the Reich territory (Reichsgebiet). Consequently, their penal records are absent. Chmielewski and Huttig were tried outside the Netherlands. The food provided was poor, and drinkable water was rare. Le camp a été tout d'abord utilisé en 1943, a emprisonné 31 000 prisonniers, et 749 prisonniers sont morts dans le camp ; une partie des prisonniers fut déplacée vers d’autres camps, peu de temps avant que les Alliés libèrent le camp en 1944. It is important to note that Herzogenbusch was deliberately designed by the Reich Security Main Offi ce (RSHA) as a Level (Stufe) I and II camp, in terms of the severity of its regime. Through the decades, the original collection has been enriched with various reports of former prisoners and other documents. It was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the town of 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands. Worth mentioning are the transport of about 90 prisoners, including some very well known resistance fighters, to the concentration camp Natzweiler at the beginning of July 1943 and the transport of about 800 prisoners to Dachau in May 1944. Helga Deen (Stettin, Germany, 6 April 1925 – Sobibor, 16 July 1943) was the author of a diary, discovered in 2004, which describes her stay in a Dutch prison camp, Kamp Vught, where she was brought during World War II at the age of 18. The common name for the camp was "Vught" after the district in which the camp was located. Although informative, these publications cannot serve as a solid basis for scholarly research, as they are devoid of fact- checking or source references. Today there is a visitors' centre which includes exhibitions and a memorial Nationaal Monument Kamp … Dat zal nu wel lang duren. Washington, DC 20024-2126 The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners. 210, BDC; Coll. 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place, SW 250gg (Vught II). Most of these sections did not exist through the full period when Herzogenbusch was active. Articles with Dutch-language external links, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Buildings and structures in North Brabant, Nazi concentration camps in the Netherlands, World War II memorials in the Netherlands, "Shades of Anne Frank in Dutch prison camp diary. This diary runs from February 11, 1943, through February 8, 1944. 749 prisoners died in the camp, and the others were transferred to other camps shortly before Herzogenbusch was liberated by the Allied Forcesin 1944. Grunewald was never tried; he died in combat in 1945 in Hungary. The main camp, the Schutzhaftlager, was in operation throughout Herzogenbusch’s existence. A French court gave Huttig the same punishment, but he was released in 1956. In May 1943, the prisoner population reached its maximum of 9,000 people. I think a lot about you. Because Herzogenbusch was not liberated by Allied forces—it was evacuated before their arrival—its prisoners were not in the position to get hold of camp records and take them home. The second group did not enter the camp before October 1943. Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camps in western Europe outside of Germany. The most probable reasons for this decision have to be found in Rauter’s concerns about the tempo and effectiveness of the deportation of the Jews from Westerbork—in principle, about 120,000 people eventually were deported—and the obvious malfunctioning of the already existing camp at Amersfoort, which proved to be too small and which had a notorious reputation for its harsh regime.  When allied forces were approaching Herzogenbusch, the camp was evacuated and the prisoners were transferred to concentration camps further east. The immediate cause for this change was the massive overflow of prisoners under investigation (Untersuchungshäftlinge), whose number was far too large to be put up in the prisons of the German police. David's mother and brother Max survived the war, but David died during a transport of sick people to Dachau in 1945.. Two women stood out in the neighborhood for their efforts to get to know the names of the prisoners, in order to pass this information to the prisoners’ family members. The building of a camp at Herzogenbusch, a German micturate for 's-Hertogenbosch, started in 1942. Furthermore, some attention from the (mostly local) press has to be noted. This explains why they tried to get assigned to the Philips-Kommando, where life remained relatively acceptable because of the protection of the Philips company management. A few hundred hostages were locked up, generally for not longer than a couple of months. This made him responsible for the daily routine of the camp. A second transport—some 2,000 prisoners from Amersfoort—arrived three days later. (Dutch language: Kamp Vught, During World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the Netherlands (1940–1945). After the last, the above-mentioned Philips-Transport, the camp was closed. Like all the other concentration camps, Herzogenbusch is to be considered as a camp complex, that is, a main camp (Hauptlager) with internal sections and several external detachments or subcamps, some of them located in the immediate vicinity of the main camp, others at a distance of over 96 kilometers (60 miles). Covers. German camp inmates were transferred with them, in order to be prominently placed as Kapos in the prisoner hierarchy. Les premiers prisonniers juifs arrivèrent le 16 janvier 1943. Consequently, 74 women were collectively punished by putting them in one cell in the bunker for 14 hours; 10 women did not survive. 749 prisoners died in the camp… Of these, 329 were murdered at an execution site just outside the camp. 749 prisoners died in the camp, … We would like to thank The Crown and Goodman Family and the Abe and Ida Cooper Foundation for supporting the ongoing About 60 percent of the prisoners were released; the rest were transported to different concentration camps in Germany. In this speech, about the specificc qualities of the SS, he did not refrain from calling the camp “an exemplary SS operation” (Musterbetrieb der SS).4. The perpetrators used these locations for a range of purposes, including forced labor, detention of people deemed to be "enemies of the state," and mass murder. After a couple of weeks, almost all of them were released. Two of the three commandants were tried after the war, but not by Dutch courts. Apart from the control issue, this status had some other implications. Two groups existed: people imprisoned in reprisal for certain actions of the re sis tance (Strafgeiseln) and family members of resistance fi ghters or other people wanted by the German police (Sippengeiseln). In the beginning of December 1942, Rauter’s superior, Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler, following Rauter’s regular updates, ordered that Herzogenbusch had to be considered an “official” concentration camp, in other words, a camp under direct supervision of the Berlin offices of the SS-Business Administration Main Office (WVHA). At some points, the camp showed an even more deadly face. Investigations of the German police indicated that students and people from better-off circles took part in these actions. During his internment he wrote a diary, which was smuggled out of the camp in parts; it is now complete and conserved. 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