Though President William McKinley had wished to avoid war, American forces moved swiftly once it began. , The defeat and loss of the Spanish Empire's last remnants was a profound shock to Spain's national psyche and provoked a thorough philosophical and artistic reevaluation of Spanish society known as the Generation of '98. Connecticut Servicemen, Spanish American War (requires payment) Florida Spanish American War Compiled Service Records, 1898 (requires payment) more than 19,000 listings. McKinley asked Congress to appropriate $50 million for defense, and Congress unanimously obliged. Although the Spanish American War was ostensibly fought to liberate Caribbean and Philippine islanders from Spanish oppression, the participation of African American troops was very controversial in the African American community. The war led to the U.S. emerging predominant in the Caribbean region, and resulted in U.S. acquisition of Spain's Pacific possessions. Armed conflict broke out between U.S. forces and the Filipinos when U.S. troops began to take the place of the Spanish in control of the country after the end of the war, quickly escalating into the Philippine–American War. While these aspects of the war created a widespread popular demand for action to halt it, the U.S. was faced with the necessity of patrolling coastal waters to prevent gunrunning to the insurgents and by demands for aid from Cubans who had acquired U.S. citizenship and then had been arrested by Spanish authorities for participating in the rebellion. By 1905 these figures jumped to 84 percent and 85 percent, respectively. In Cuba, then a Spanish colony, angry nationalists known as the insurrectos began a revolt against the ruling Spanish colonial regime. In the Philippines, the Spanish were easily defeated in the naval Battle of Manila Bay on May 1. It was our duty, even more from the standpoint of National honor than from the standpoint of National interest, to stop the devastation and destruction. They discredited the idealism by suggesting the people were deliberately misled by propaganda and sensationalist yellow journalism. Spanish-American War, 1898, brief conflict between Spain and the United States arising out of Spanish policies in Cuba. Spanish Civil War (1936–39), military revolt by Nationalist rebels, supported by conservative elements within the country, against the Republican government of Spain. "The Spanish–American War Centennial Website: The relations of the United States and Spain: the Spanish–American War, "Milestones: 1899–1913 : The United States, Cuba, and the Platt Amendment, 1901", Confederate & Federal Veterans of '98: Civil War Veterans who served in the Spanish–American War, Philippine Insurrection, and China Relief Expedition by Micah J. Jenkins, "Telecom tax imposed in 1898 finally ends", The Spanish American War in Motion Picture, "Ambivalent embrace: America's troubled relations with Spain from the Revolutionary War to the Cold War", "Chronological History of US Foreign Relations: 1607–1932", "William McKinley's Values and the Origins of the Spanish-American War: A Reinterpretation", "Emergence to World Power 1898–1902" Ch. Culturally, a new wave called the Generation of '98 originated as a response to this trauma, marking a renaissance in Spanish culture. Grenville, John A. S. and George Berkeley Young. The Rough Riders participated in two important battles in Cuba. This year marks the centennial of the Spanish-American War, which was fought between May and August 1898.  The invaders obtained the surrender of Santiago de Cuba and Manila despite the good performance of some Spanish infantry units, and fierce fighting for positions such as San Juan Hill. But even greater were our interests from the standpoint of humanity. The focus on preserving the empire would have negative consequences for Spain's national pride in the aftermath of the Spanish–American War.. The U.S. annexed the former Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam. For quite some time the Cuban public believed the United States government to possibly hold the key to its independence, and even annexation was considered for a time, which historian Louis Pérez explored in his book Cuba and the United States: Ties of Singular Intimacy. How stability would be achieved would depend largely on the ability of Spain and the U.S. to work out their issues diplomatically. It was, to a large degree, brought about by the efforts of U.S. "A Splendid Little War." Let Spain, he wrote, abandon reconcentration in fact as well as in name, declare an armistice, and accept U.S. mediation in peace negotiations with the insurgents. Number is the total for all Cuban rebels active from 1895 to 1898. Responsibility for the disaster was never determined. Spain’s military was outmatched from the opening of hostilities, and an armistice signed on August 12, 1898, brought an end to the fighting. The United States occupied Cuba and took possession of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Theodore Roosevelt leading the Rough Riders during the Spanish-American War, 1898; print created by Kurz & Allison. The Rough Riders lost seven men with thirty-four wounded. While McKinley urged patience and did not declare that Spain had caused the explosion, the deaths of 250 out of 355 sailors on board focused American attention. 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